Where did the miniature paintings of Indian heritage develop?

(1) Guler
(2) Mewar
(3) Bundi
(4) Kishengarh

Correct Answer : (4) The miniature paintings of Indian heritage develop in Mewar (Udaipur), Bundi, Kotah, Marwar (Jodhpur), Bikaner, Jaipur, and Kishangarh.

Explanation :

As the name suggests, miniature paintings are colourful handmade paintings very small in size but highly detailed paintings. The tradition of Indian miniature painting can be traced from the 9th-10th century in the Buddhist Pala period palm leaf manuscript of eastern India and in the western India in the Jaina palm leaf manuscript.

Paper was introduced in India in the 12th century but the miniature paintings trace back to at least the 9th century. They were painted on manuscripts made out of dried palm leaves or were painted on cloth.

One of the outstanding features of these paintings is the intricate brushwork that contributes to their unique identity. The colours used in the paintings are derived from various natural sources like vegetables, indigo, precious stones, gold, and silver.

While artists all around the world convey their respective theme through their paintings, the most common theme used in the miniature paintings of India comprises of the Ragas or a pattern of musical notes, and religious and mythological stories.

Miniature paintings are made on a very small scale, especially for books or albums. These are executed on materials, such as paper and cloth. The Palas of Bengal are considered the pioneers of miniature painting in India, but the art form reached its zenith during the Mughal rule.

In the sixteenth century, the Mughal ruler Humayun brought artists from Persia, who specialized in miniature paintings. The succeeding Mughal Emperor, Akbar built an atelier for them to promote the rich art form.

These artists, on their part, trained Indian artists who produced paintings in a new distinctive style, inspired by the royal and romantic lives of the Mughals.

The particular miniature produced by Indian artists in their own style is known as Rajput or Rajasthani miniature. During this time, several schools of painting evolved, such as Mewar (Udaipur), Bundi, Kotah, Marwar (Jodhpur), Bikaner, Jaipur, and Kishangarh, in the modern day Rajasthan.

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